Xiaodong Song

SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES, PEKING UNIVERSITY • Chair Professor

Office Address:
Science Building 2

E-mail:
xdsong@pku.edu.cn

Personal Profile

Peking University Chair Professor

Ph.D. of California Institute of Technology (1994)

Essential Information

Research Interests

Focus on seismology and studies of the Earth’s deep interior, including studies of structure and dynamics of the Earth’s core and lower most mantle, and lithosphere structure and tectonics of China and east Asia. The research relies primarily on seismic data analyses and seismic imaging with both forward modeling and tomographic inversion approaches with inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary collaborations.

Main research topics include:

l  Seismic imaging methods (noise interferometry, surface waves, body waves, receiver functions, full waves, joint inversions, array processing, machine learning)

l  Lithosphere structure and tectonics of China and East Asia

l  Nature of the core-mantle boundary

l  Structure of the Earth’s core (anisotropy of the inner core)

l  Rotation and motion of the Earth’s inner core

l  Temporal changes of geophysical observations and Earth’s media

l  Earthquake forecasting and seismic hazard analyses


Educational Background

l  University of Science and Technology of China, B.S., Geophysics, June 1986

l  California Institute of Technology, M.S., Geophysics, May 1991

l  California Institute of Technology, Ph.D., Geophysics with Computer Science Minor, May 1994

 

Employments and Affiliations

u  1994-1999 Postdoctoral Fellow, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University; also Visiting Investigator at Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA

u  1996-1999 Storke-Doherty Lecturer, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University; and Associate Research Scientist, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA

u  1999-2003 Assistant Professor (tenure-track), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2003-2008 Associate Professor (with tenure), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2008-2020 Professor (with tenure), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2020-Present Peking University Chair Professor (with tenure), Beijing, China

 

Honors and Achievements

u  1989-1992 Sir Run Run Shaw (of Hong Kong) Graduate Fellowship, Caltech 

u  1994-1996 Lamont-Doherty Postdoctoral Fellowship, Columbia U. 

u  1996-1999 Storke-Doherty Lecturership, Columbia U.

u  1996 The work on the rotation of the Earth's inner core (Song and Richards, Nature, 1996) was named as a 1996 Break Through of the Year by SCIENCE magazine. It also won the 1996 Award for Science and Technology by PopularScience magazine.

u  1996 Doornbos Prize by the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy committee on Studies of Earth Deep Interior (SEDI) for the work on inner core rotation.

u  1997 Science and Technology Agency (STA) Fellow, the Research Development Corporation of Japan

u  1998 Outstanding Overseas Young Scientist Award by the NSF of China

u  2000 Work on inner core rotation was named as one of most important science discoveries in the 20th century by DISCOVER magazine.

u  2005 Science paper by Zhang et al. was selected as DISCOVER's 100 Top Science Stories of the year.

u  2006-2007 Associate, Center for Advanced Study, UIUC

u  2010-2020 Distinguished Visiting Scholar in Nanjing U., Wuhan U., Peking U.   

u  2016 The work on equatorial anisotropy of the inner-inner core was selected as a representative achievement from China in 2015 by Chinese Academy of Sciences and was highlighted as “Year in Review 2015” by Encyclopedia Britannica.

u  2016 Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) Distinguished Lectureship

 

Teaching Experiences

u  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999-2020, 21 Years) (Undergraduate and Graduate Courses): Geology for Engineers, Introduction to Geophysics, Methods in Applied Geophysics, Introduction to Seismology, Physics of Earth’s Interior.

u  Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences (1999 Summer School): Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate)

u  Nanjing University (2012): Introduction to Seismology (Undergraduate), Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate).

u  Wuhan University (2016): Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate), Frontiers of Geophysical Research with Instructions on Scientific Writing (Graduate).

u  Peking University (2021-): Introduction to Earth Science - Geophysics and Space Physics (Undergraduate), Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate).

 

Professional Service

l  Editor-in-Chief: Earthquake Science

l  Associate Editor: Earth and Planetary Physics, Acta Geologica Sinica.

l  Guest (co-)Editor: Earthquake Science, Tectonophysics, Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences.

l  Editorial Board Member: Progress in Natural Sciences, Earthquake Science (Seismo. Soc. China), Earth Science (J. China U. Geosci. and Springer). 

l  Member and Chair, IRIS Global Seismic Network Standing Committee.

l  Associate Chair and Chair, International Professionals for the Advancement of Chinese Earth Sciences (IPACES)

l  Delegate to the U.S.-China Coordinating Meeting for Earthquake Studies (2007).

l  (Co-)Convener and (Co-)Chair, American Geophysical Union (AGU) (1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2008, 2010).  

l  Program Committee, AGU West Pacific Meeting (2006, 2010). Sino-US Earthquake Studies Workshop (2008).

l  Co-convener, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)  (2016-2019).


News

2022.11

The workshop on "Establishing a Standard Earth Reference Model in China" was successfully held. The meeting was convened by Prof. Song Xiaodong of Peking University, the director of the Seismological Committee of China Seismological Society and the editor-in-chief of EQS. The workshop invited 11 experts, including Chen Xiaofei, to share the existing models and data sharing and detection methods, and to discuss the possible ways to establish a standard earth reference model and detection model and a standard database in China. During the report, five academicians gave specific suggestions. The meeting was highly valued by the China Earthquake Administration and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

北大地空学院新闻报道北大地物网新闻报道Earthquake Science 公众号报道


2022.09

Peking University Overseas Distinguished Lecturer Program Seismic Physics Lecture Series was successfully held. Invited by Professor Song Xiaodong and Researcher Yue Han, Professor Jean-Philippe Avouac and Professor Hiroo Kanamori from California Institute of Technology gave four lectures in the special lecture series. The lectures covered basic knowledge and cutting-edge advances in earthquake control factors, seismic scale relationships, and silent uplift, monsoonal swing and large earthquakes in the Himalaya.

北大新闻网报道北大地空学院新闻报道北大地物网新闻报道


2022.06

Postdoc Y. Yang and X. Song* GRL 2022, successfully captured the signal of Earth's inner core rotation and accurately determined the inner core rotation rate using repeated earthquakes and station pairs with equal epicentral distance.

北大地物网新闻报道https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098393

 

2022.06

Ph.D. student X. Jiang and X. Song* GRL 2022, proposed a new method to determine the moment magnitude of large earthquakes based on long-period coda waves.

北大地物网新闻报道https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL097801

 

2022.06

Ph.D. student F. Wang and X. Song* et al, JGR 2022, proposed a deep-learning network (HkNet) to estimate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs wave velocity ratio from receive functions

北大地物网新闻报道https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB023944

 

2022.05

Ph.D. student X. Zhang and X. Song* Earthquake Science (EQS) 2022, published a comparative study of shear wave velocity models of the Chinese continental lithosphere, which found some agreement between models that used different data and methods, but inconsistency was also significant.

https://www.equsci.org.cn/en/article/doi/10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.005

 

2022.04

Former postdoc M. Li and X. Song* Earthquake Science (EQS) 2022, published the latest high-resolution transverse wave velocity model of the East Asian continental lithosphere, which reveals the strongly non-uniform lithospheric structure of the East Asian subsurface and yields a new map of the studied lithospheric thickness distribution.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674451922000349

https://www.equsci.org.cn/en/article/doi/10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.004

 

2022.04

Prof. Xiaodong Song has been selected by Elsevier, a global information analysis company, in the 2021 list of highly cited scholars in China, with a total of 18 scholars in the discipline of geophysics. 北大地物网新闻报道

 

2022.03

The internationally renowned journal Science published a feature news article on the Earth’s inner core, which features Prof. Xiaodong Song’s research over many years and his latest work with postdoctoral fellow Yi Yang. The article quoted Professor Song that "all the time-varying phenomena in the core have disappeared simultaneously in the last decade" to introduce the latest results presented at the AGU annual meeting in late 2021. From the Peking University Space and Earth Institute website. 北大地空学院网站报道

 

2022.02

The English-language scientific journal Earthquake Science has published a special issue in honor of Professor Donald Vincent Helmberger, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and professor emeritus at the California Institute of Technology. The special issue was guest edited by Professors Thorne Lay and Xiaodong Song, students of Professor Helmberger, with all articles from Professor Helmberger's former students or post-docs.

Earthquake Science 公众号报道

https://www.equsci.org.cn/en/article/2022/1

https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/earthquake-science/vol/35/issue/1

 

2022.02

Ph.D. student X. Jiang, and X. Song* et al, On the generation and decay of the long-period coda energy of large earthquakes, Earthquake Science, 2021, was awarded EQS 2021 Outstanding Student Paper.

https://www.equsci.org.cn/article/doi/10.29382/eqs-2021-0012?pageType=en

 

2021.11

Postdoc Y. Yang and X. Song* and Adam Ringler SRL 2022, evaluated the clock accuracy of a large number of important global and regional seismic stations (networks) and found that clock errors at the stations are a common problem.

https://doi.org/10.1785/0220210232

 

2021.11

PhD student at Wuhan University and X. Song* and Y. Yang et al. JGR 2021, using a background noise interference method, found strong seasonality in crustal seismic wave velocity variations in the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basin.

https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022600

 

2021.11

Prof. Xiaodong Song was awarded the Outstanding Editorial Board Member of Earth and Planetary Physics Review 2021.

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/31lqNCaOPw3SbesEnDUVag

 

2021.11

Prof. Xiaodong Song was invited to give a keynote speech at Deep 2021 Forum "Comparison of seismic imaging models of lithospheric structures in mainland China".

http://2021.sinoprobe.org/

 

2021.11

Prof. Xiaodong Song is the co-convenor of AOGS Annual Meeting of Asian Oceanian Geoscience Society special sessions: In and Around the Tibetan Plateau: Deep Structure, Geodynamics and Seismicity of Big Faults and the co-convenor of Dynamic System of the Deep Earth: Interactions from the Core to the Surface.

 

2021.09

Prof. Xiaodong Song is teaching for the first time at Peking University, teaching the first year undergraduate course: Introduction to Earth Science - Geophysics and Space Physics, and the PhD course: Physics of Earth's Interior in full English.

Click on the link to watch the short video of the undergraduate course https://disk.pku.edu.cn:443/link/A2458C3F65959A430F27EBE82EAAAF40

 

2021.08

Prof. Xiaodong Song organized a workshop on "New Technologies and Development Strategies for Earthquake Monitoring and Data Analysis", which was successfully held in Beijing in August 2021. It was co-sponsored by the Seismological Committee of the Seismological Society of China and the Editorial Board of Earthquake Science (EQS), and organized by the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration. More than 800 experts and scholars participated in the conference either on-site or online.

https://www.cea-igp.ac.cn/cxdt/278449.html

 

2021.05

J. Li* and X. Song * Earthquake Science (EQS) 2021, Study of crustal structure under Hi-CLIMB seismic arrays in the central and western Tibetan Plateau using an improved H-κ-c method.

https://doi.org/10.29382/eqs-2021-0002

 

2021.01 

The following paper with Prof. Xiaodong Song as one of the co-authors was selected as one of the most cited articles since 2018. Deng, Y., Li, J., Peng, T., Ma, Q., Song, X., Sun, X., Shen, Y., Fan, W., 2019. Lithospheric structure in the Cathaysia block (South China) and its implication for the Late Mesozoic magmatism. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 291, 24-34.

https://www.journals.elsevier.com/physics-of-the-earth-and-planetary-interiors/most-cited-articles.

 

2020.11

Prof. Xiaodong Song was awarded as the Outstanding Editorial Board Member of EPP (Earth and Planetary Physics) 2020.

 

2020.11

Q. Wang, X. Song* and J. Ren, (Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia), EPP 2017, Winner of the 2020 Highly Cited Paper Award.

https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2017003.

 

2020.11

Y. Yang & X. Song*  EPSL 2020, Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics 2021, Debates about "Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves".  北大地物网新闻报道



2020.7

X. Bao and X. Song* et al. GRL 2020, Episodic lithospheric deformation in eastern Tibet inferred from seismic anisotropy. Link:北大地物网新闻报道

 

2020.6
H. Xia and X. Song* et al. PEPI 2020, Amplitude and decay of long-period coda of great earthquakes.
Link:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2020.106538.

 

2020.6
Y. Yang & X. Song* EPSL 2020, Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves. Link:北大地物网新闻报道北大地空学院网站报道美国UIUC新闻报道

 

2020.5
L. Zhou, X. Song* & R. L. Weaver GJI 2020, 
Retrieval of amplitude and attenuation from ambient seismic noise: synthetic data and practical considerations.Link:https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa194.


2020.2
Y. Yang & X. Song* JGR 2020, Temporal Changes of the Inner Core From Globally Distributed Repeating Earthquakes.
Link:https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018652.  


2020.1
J. Li*, R. L. Weaver, J. Y. Yoritomo & X. Song*
 GJI 2020, Application of temporal reweighting to ambient noise cross-correlation for improved seismic Green's function. Link:https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa001.


Research Areas

Seismology

Main interests include structure seismology and seismic methods. Of particular interests are structures of the deep interior of the earth (core and lowermost mantle) and crust and lithosphere of China and east Asia. Seismology is fundamentally an observational science (including broadband seismographs, array observations, distributed optical fibers, and so on). Professor Song's research group seeks innovative methods to extract information from high-quality fine signals or large amounts of seismic data.


Methods involve understanding wiggles of seismograms (seismic data analyses, synthetic seismograms, waveform modeling) or processing of large quantity of data (tomographic inversions, joint inversions, noise interferometry, machine learning). Seismic data used include seismic body waves, surface waves, coda, and noise.


1a.png

Inner-inner core with equatorial anisotropy from auto-correlation of earthquake coda. From Wang et al. 2015 Nature Geosciences.



Physics of Earth’s Interior

Physics of the Earth's Interior aims at understanding the inner workings of the Earth: its internal structure, composition, dynamics, and evolution from the lithosphere to the Earth’s core. It is one of the core and most active research areas in solid earth geophysics with global impacts. Prof. Song mainly interests in structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, especially on the core and the lowermost mantle as well as structure and tectonics of China and East Asia. Studies rely mainly on seismological and other geophysical observations and methods.


2a.png

Using seismic waves, Prof. Xiaodong Song and Paul Richard’s groups found (Song and Richards 1996 Nature) and confirmed (Zhang-Song et al. 2005 Science) evidence for the super-rotation of the Earth’s inner core.

 

 

Lithosphere structure and continental dynamics

We live on continents. As the remnants of the earth's material cycle, continental crust and lithosphere are geologically diverse and complex. Classical plate tectonics cannot explain the continental deformation and evolution well.

 

Professor Song's main interests are in continental structure, deformation, and dynamics, including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Taiwan Orogenic Belt, the lithosphere structure and regional tectonics of East and South Asia, and hazards and forecast.

 

Research methods mainly rely on seismic wave data analysis, forward modeling and tomography. The main research topics include seismic body wave imaging, seismic noise surface wave imaging, receiver function, joint inversion, and others.


3a.png

Prof. Song and student Jiangtao Li found that the tearing structure of the Indian mantle lithosphere under southern Tibet, which could a unified mechanisms for some of the mysterious phenomena in the southern Tibet (surface rifting, volcanism in the high Tibetan plateau, segmented crustal deformation, intermediate-depth earthquakes, and clustered seismicity) (Li and Song 2018 PNAS).

 


Time-dependent geophysics

The development in the past decades has allowed us not only to observe the earth in a three-dimensional also in a four-dimensional way: how the earth medium changes over time. Professor Song's research group uses repeated earthquake and noise interferometry techniques to study the temporal and spatial changes of the crust related to tectonic activities (such as earthquakes). This research is of great significance to earthquake forcast. Repetitive earthquakes are also an excellent tool for studying the rotation and dynamics of the inner core.



4a.png

Professor Song and student Xu Zhen used the noise coherence method to discover the changes in the crustal medium caused by the Sumatra earthquake (Xu and Song 2018 PNAS).


Publications

Google Scholar


I. Selected Publications

+ Student/Postdoc; ++Visting scholar;* Corresponding author;§ Invited


Selected papers on the Earth’s core and core-mantle boundary

l  Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press, 2020.

l  Wang, T.+, X.D. Song*, Xia H. Han, Equatorial anisotropy of Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelation of earthquake coda, Nature Geosci., 8 (3), 224-227, doi:10.1038/ngeo2354, 2015.

l  Sun, X.L.,+ X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, and D.V. Helmberger, Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (1), 26-30, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609143103, 2007.

l  Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Seismological evidence for an inner core transition zone, Science, 282, 924-927, 1998.

l  Song, X.D.*, and P.G. Richards Seismological evidence for differential rotation of the Earth's inner core, Nature, 382, 221-224, 1996.



Selected papers on structure and tectonics of Asia

l  Li, J.T.+, X.D. Song*, Tearing of Indian mantle lithosphere from high-resolution seismic images: Implications for lithosphere deformation in southern Tibet. Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717258115, 2018.

l  Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song*, J.T. Li, High-resolution lithospheric structure beneath Mainland China from ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 417, 132-141, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.02.024, 2015.

l  Xu, Z.J.,+ and X.D. Song*, Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, 106, 14207-14212, 2009.

l  Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, X.D. Song*, Y.J. Yang, M.H. Ritzwoller, Surface wave tomography of China from ambient seismic noise correlation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q05020, doi:10.1029/2008GC001981, 2008.

l  Liang, C.T.+, X.D. Song*, and J.L. Huang, Tomographic inversion of Pn travel-times in China, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11304, doi:10.1029/2003JB0027 89, 2004.

l  Zhang, G.M, L.R. Zhu, X.D. Song*, Z.X. Li, M.L. Yang, N.Q. Su, and X.Z. Chen, Predictions of the 1997 strong earthquakes in Jiashi, Xinjiang, China, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 1171-1183, 1999



Review Articles

l  宋晓东*, 地球内核内的核, 中国科学院2016科学发展报告(2015年中国科研代表性成果)

l  Song, X.D.* Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, H. Gupta (Ed.), 118-121, 2014.

l  Song, X.D.*, Inner core anisotropy, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (D. Gubbins and E. Herroro-Bervera, Eds.), 418-420, Springer, 2007.

l  Song, X.D.*, Three-dimensional structure and differential rotation of the inner core, in Earth Core: Dynamics, Structure, Rotation (V.M. Dehant, K.C. Creager, S. Zatman, S. Karato, Eds.), Geodynamics Series, Vol. 31, American Geophysical Union, 2003.

l  Song, X.D.*, The Earth's core, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, (W. H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Eds.), Volume 1, Chapter 56, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002.

l  Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, The Earth's Core (in Chinese), New Frontiers of Sciences: Structure Evolution and Dynamics of the Earth (Eds: Y.X. Zhang, A. Yin), Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, 2002. 宋晓东和许晓霞,地核-20世纪的发现及展望,地球的结构、演化和动力学,主编:张有学和尹安,高等教育出版社,第四章,2002.

l  Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy of the Earth's inner core, Rev. of Geophysics, 35, 297-313, 1997.

l  Song, X.D., A review of Pn tomography of China, in Advances in Seismology and Physics of Earth's interior in China (Y.T. Chen and C.Y. Wang, Eds.), Seismology Press, Beijing, 321-345, 2004.



II. List of publications in last 5 years

+ Student/Postdoc; ++ Visiting scholar;* Corresponding author;§ Invited

109. Yang, Y., & Song, X.D. *(2022). Inner core rotation captured by earthquake doublets and twin stations. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL098393. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098393

108. Cui, Q.++, Zhou, Y., Li, J., Song, X., Gao, Y., Cui, R. (2022) Crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ) images beneath the central Tien Shan revealed by the H-κ-c method. Tectonophysics, 822, 229157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2021.229157

107. Li, M.+, Song, X.*, Li, J., Bao, X. (2022) Crust and upper mantle structure of East Asia from ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography, Earthq Sci, 35 (2), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.004

106. Wang, F.+, Song, X.*, Li, J. (2022) Deep Learning‐Based H‐κ Method (HkNet) for Estimating Crustal Thickness and Vp/Vs Ratio From Receiver Functions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 127 (6), e2022JB023944. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB023944

105. Zhang, X.+, Song, X.*, Li, J. (2022). A comparative study of seismic tomography models of the Chinese continental lithosphere. Earthq Sci 35(3): 161–185, doi: 10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.005

104. Yue, H., Shen, Z., Zhao, Z., Wang, T., Cao, B., Li, Z., Bao, X., Zhao, L., Song, X., et al. (2022) Rupture process of the 2021 M7. 4 Maduo earthquake and implication for deformation mode of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane in Tibetan Plateau, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119 (23), e2116445119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116445119

103. Jiang, X.+, Song X.* (2022) A Method to Determine Moment Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes Based on the Long‐Period Coda, Geophysical Research Letters 49 (12), e2022GL097801. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL097801

102. Song, X. (2021). Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core. In: Gupta, H.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58631-7_43

101. Yang Y, Song X*. (2021) Repeating earthquakes and temporal changes of the Earth's inner core. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 52(1):1-10. doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2020-010

100. Li, J. T.*, & Song, X. D.* (2021). Crustal structure beneath the Hi-CLIMB seismic array in the central-western Tibetan Plateau from the improved H-κ-c method. Earthq Sci, 34(3), 199-210. doi: 10.29382/eqs-2021-0002

99. Jiang, X., Song, X.*, Xia, H. H., & Weaver, R. L. (2021). On the generation and decay of the long-period coda energy of large earthquakes. Earthquake Science, 34(2), 103-113. doi: 10.29382/eqs-2021-0012

98. Li, J., Song, X.*, Yang, Y., Li, M., Li, J., & Li, Y. (2021) Strong seasonal variations of seismic velocity in eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin from ambient noise interferometry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, e2021JB022600. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022600

97. Yang, Y., X. Song*, and A. T. Ringler (2021). An Evaluation of the Timing Accuracy of Global and Regional Seismic Stations and Networks, Seismol. Res. Lett. XX, 1–12, doi: 10.1785/0220210232.

96. Yang, Y.+, & Song, X.* (2020). Reply to Yao et al.'s comment on “Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 116639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116639

95. Zhou, L.++, Song, X.*, Yang, X., & Zhao, C. (2020). Rayleigh Wave Attenuation Tomography in the Crust of the Chinese Mainland. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 21(8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GC008971.

94. Bao, X., Song, X.*, Eaton, D. W., Xu, Y., & Chen, H. (2020). Episodic lithospheric deformation in eastern Tibet inferred from seismic anisotropy. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085721. https://doi.org/ 10.1029/2019GL085721.

93. Jia, K., S. Zhou, J. Zhuang, C. Jiang, Y. Guo, Z. Gao, S. Gao, Y. Ogata, and X. Song (2020). Nonstationary Background Seismicity Rate and Evolution of Stress Changes in the Changning Salt Mining and Shale-Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Region, Sichuan Basin, China, Seismol. Res. Lett. XX, 1–12, doi: 10.1785/0220200092.

92. Xia, H.H.+, X.D. Song*, R.L. Weaver, J.T. Li, 2020. Amplitude and decay of long-period coda of great earthquakes, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter., 306, 106538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2020.106538.

91. Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, 2020. Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 541, 116267 doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116267.

90. Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, Yang, Y., & Song, X. (2020). Temporal changes of the inner core from globally distributed repeating earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125, e2019JB018652. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018652.

89. Zhou, L.Q.++, X.D. Song*, R.L. Weaver, 2020. Retrieval of Amplitude and Attenuation from Ambient Seismic Noise: Synthetic Data and Practical Considerations, Geophys. J. Int., 222, 544–559. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa194.

88. Li, J.+*, R.L. Weaver, J.Y. Yoritomo, X.D. Song* (2020), Application of temporal reweighting to ambient noise cross-correlation for improved seismic Green’s function, Geophys. J. Int.  221, 265–272 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa001.

87. 杨志高,陈运泰,张雪梅,宋晓东,青藏高原东缘及东北缘 S 波速度结构和径向各向异性,地球物理学报,2019.

86. Zhang, G.+, X. Li, C. Zheng, X.D. Song*, Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath the central-eastern Tibetan Plateau from P-wave tomography青藏高原中东部地壳和上地幔P波层析成像 Acta Seismologica Sinica, 2019 41(4), 411-424. https://doi.org/10.11939/jass.20190003.

85. Du X‐B++, Lu Y‐C, Chen P, Li X‐Q, Song X‐D. The Lower Yangtze area: A next shale gas block for China? Preliminary potential assessment from some geology and organic geochemistry information. Geological Journal. 2019;1–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3585.

84. Du X‐B++, Chen P, Lu Y, Song X. Dual‐ system tract pattern: Significance for foreland basin reservoir prediction (Jurassic, Central Junggar Basin, West China). Geological Journal. 2019;1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3557.

83. WS Wang+, XD Song*, Analyses of anomalous amplitudes of antipodal PKIIKP wavesEarth and Planetary Physics 3 (3), 212-217, 2019.

82. ZG Yang+, XD Song*, Ambient noise Love wave tomography of China, Earth and Planetary Physics 3 (3), 218-231, 2019.

81. Y Deng++, J Li, T Peng, Q Ma, X Song, X Sun, Y Shen, W Fan, Lithospheric structure in the Cathaysia block (South China) and its implication for the Late Mesozoic magmatism, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 291, 24-34, 2019.

80. L Chen++, X Song, TV Gerya, T Xu, Y Chen, Crustal melting beneath orogenic plateaus: Insights from 3D Thermomechanical modeling, Tectonophysics 761, 1-15, 2019.

79. Li, J.+, Song, X.*, Wang, P., & Zhu, L. (2019). A generalized H‐κ method with harmonic corrections on Ps and its crustal multiples in receiver functions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB016356.

78. Y Deng++, J Li+, X Song, H Li, T Xu, The lithosphericscale deformation in NE Tibet from joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 30 (1), 127-137, 2019.

77. C Hwang, WB Shen, CK Shum, X Song, Introduction to the special issue on Tibet: Contemporary geodetic geophysical observations and interpretations, TERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES 30, 1-5, 2019.

76. Zheng, C.++, Ding, Z. & Song, X., 2018. Joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and receiver functions for crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the north-south seismic zone, Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese), 61, 4, p.122-1224, doi:10.6038/cjg2018L0443.

75. Li, M.+, Song, X., Li, J. & Bao, X., 2018. Lithospheric structures of the Main Basins in Mainland China and its tectonic implications, Earth Science (in Chinese), 43, 10, p. 3362-3372, doi:10.3799/dqkx.2018.286.

74. Li, J.T.+, X.D. Song*, Tearing of Indian mantle lithosphere from high-resolution seismic images: Implications for lithosphere deformation in southern Tibet. Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717258115, 2018.

73. Li, H.++, Song, X.D., Lü, Q., Yang, X., Deng, Y., Ouyang, L., et al. (2018). Seismic imaging of lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China and their tectonic implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JB014992.

72. Deng, Y.F.++*, Li, J.T.*, Song, X.D.*, Zhu, L.P. Joint inversion for lithospheric structures: Implications for the growth and deformation in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077486, 2018.

71. Li, J.T.+, Song, X.D.*, Zhu, L., & Deng, Y. (2017). Joint Inversion of Surface Wave Dispersions and Receiver Functions with P Velocity Constraints: Application to Southeastern Tibet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122(9), 7291-7310.

70. Wang Q.+, X.D. Song*, J. Y. Ren (2017), Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia, Earth Planet. Phys., 1, 13-25, doi: 10.26464/epp2017003.

69. Ye, Z.++, Li, J.T.+, Gao, R.++, Song, X.D., Li, Q., Li, Y., … Li, W. (2017). Crustal and uppermost mantle structure across the Tibet-Qinling transition zone in NE Tibet: Implications for material extrusion beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 10,316–10,323. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL075141.

68. Wang, T.*, X. Song* Support for equatorial anisotropy of Earth’s inner-inner core from seismic interferometry at low latitudes. Phys. Earth Planet. In. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2017.03.004

67. Li, X.+, X. Song*, and J. Li (2017), Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JB013787, 2017.


Curriculum Vitae

C.V. in pdf (Including full list of publications)


Contact

46 Hai Dian Road

West Resources Building, Room 2412

Peking University

Beijing 100871, China

email: xdsong@pku.edu.cn

web: http://geophy.pku.edu.cn/people/songxiaodong/english/index.html

 

Educational Background

u  University of Science and Technology of China, B.S., Geophysics, June 1986

u  California Institute of Technology, M.S., Geophysics, May 1991

u  California Institute of Technology, Ph.D., Geophysics with Computer Science Minor, May 1994

 

Employments and Affiliations

u  1994-1996 Postdoctoral Fellow, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University; also Visiting Investigator at Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA

u 1996-1999 Storke-Doherty Lecturer, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University; and Associate Research Scientist, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA

u  1999-2003 Assistant Professor (tenure-track), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2003-2008 Associate Professor (with tenure), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2008-2020 Professor (with tenure), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

u  2020-Present Peking University Chair Professor (with tenure), Beijing, China

 

Honors and Achievements

u  1989-1992 Sir Run Run Shaw (of Hong Kong) Graduate Fellowship, Caltech 

u  1994-1996 Lamont-Doherty Postdoctoral Fellowship, Columbia U. 

u  1996-1999 Storke-Doherty Lecturership, Columbia U.

u  1996 The work on the rotation of the Earth's inner core (Song and Richards, Nature, 1996) was named as a 1996 Break Through of the Year by SCIENCE magazine. It also won the 1996 Award for Science and Technology by PopularScience magazine.

u  1996 Doornbos Prize by the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy committee on Studies of Earth Deep Interior (SEDI) for the work on inner core rotation.

u  1997 Science and Technology Agency (STA) Fellow, the Research Development Corporation of Japan

u  1998 Outstanding Overseas Young Scientist Award by the NSF of China

u  2000 Work on inner core rotation was named as one of most important science discoveries in the 20th century by DISCOVER magazine.

u  2005 Science paper by Zhang et al. was selected as DISCOVER's 100 Top Science Stories of the year.

u  2006-2007 Associate, Center for Advanced Study, UIUC

u  2010-2020 Distinguished Visiting Scholar in Nanjing U., Wuhan U., Peking U.   

u  2016 The work on equatorial anisotropy of the inner-inner core was selected as a representative achievement from China in 2015 by Chinese Academy of Sciences and was highlighted as “Year in Review 2015” by Encyclopedia Britannica.

u  2016 Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) Distinguished Lectureship



Teaching Experiences

u  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1999-2020, 21 Years) (Undergraduate and Graduate Courses): Geology for Engineers, Introduction to Geophysics, Methods in Applied Geophysics, Introduction to Seismology, Physics of Earth’s Interior.

u  Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences (1999 Summer School): Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate)

u  Nanjing University (2012): Introduction to Seismology (Undergrad), Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate).

u  Wuhan University (2016): Physics of Earth’s Interior (Graduate), Frontiers of Geophysical Research with Instructions on Scientific Writing (Graduate).


 

Professional Service

u  Editor-in-Chief: Earthquake Science

u  Associate Editor: Earth and Planetary Physics, Acta Geologica Sinica.

u  Guest (co-)Editor: Earthquake Science, Tectonophysics, Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences.

u  Editorial Board Member: Progress in Natural Sciences, Earthquake Science (Seismo. Soc. China)Earth Science (J. China U. Geosci. and Springer). 

u  Member and Chair, IRIS Global Seismic Network Standing Committee.

u  Associate Chair and Chair, International Professionals for the Advancement of Chinese Earth Sciences (IPACES)

u  Delegate to the U.S.-China Coordinating Meeting for Earthquake Studies (2007).

u  (Co-)Convener and (Co-)Chair, American Geophysical Union (AGU) (1998, 2000, 201, 2002, 2004, 2008, 2010).  

u  Program Committee, AGU West Pacific Meeting (2006, 2010). Sino-US Earthquake Studies Workshop (2008).

u  Co-convener, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) (2016-2019).


 

Peer-Reviewed Publications

link: Google Scholar 


+ Supervised student/postdoc contribution

* Corresponding author

§ Invited contribution

 

Selected papers on the Earth’s core and core-mantle boundary

l  Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press, 2020.

l  Wang, T.+, X.D. Song*, Xia H. Han, Equatorial anisotropy of Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelation of earthquake coda, Nature Geosci., 8 (3), 224-227, doi:10.1038/ngeo2354, 2015.

l  Sun, X.L.+, X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, and D.V. Helmberger, Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (1), 26-30, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609143103, 2007.

l  Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Seismological evidence for an inner core transition zone, Science, 282, 924-927, 1998.

l  Song, X.D.*, and P.G. Richards Seismological evidence for differential rotation of the Earth's inner core, Nature, 382, 221-224, 1996.



Selected papers on structure and tectonics of Asia

l  Li, J.T.+, X.D. Song*, Tearing of Indian mantle lithosphere from high-resolution seismic images: Implications for lithosphere deformation in southern Tibet. Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717258115, 2018.

l  Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song*, J.T. Li, High-resolution lithospheric structure beneath Mainland China from ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 417, 132-141, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.02.024, 2015.

l  Xu, Z.J.+, and X.D. Song*, Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, 106, 14207-14212, 2009.

l  Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, X.D. Song*, Y.J. Yang, M.H. Ritzwoller, Surface wave tomography of China from ambient seismic noise correlation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q05020, doi:10.1029/2008GC001981, 2008.

l  Liang, C.T.+, X.D. Song*, and J.L. Huang, Tomographic inversion of Pn travel-times in China, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11304, doi:10.1029/2003JB0027 89, 2004.

l  Zhang, G.M, L.R. Zhu, X.D. Song*, Z.X. Li, M.L. Yang, N.Q. Su, and X.Z. Chen, Predictions of the 1997 strong earthquakes in Jiashi, Xinjiang, China, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 1171-1183, 1999

 


Review Articles

l  宋晓东*, 地球内核内的核, 中国科学院2016科学发展报告(2015年中国科研代表性成果)

l  Song, X.D.* Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, H. Gupta (Ed.), 118-121, 2014.

l  Song, X.D.*, Inner core anisotropy, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (D. Gubbins and E. Herroro-Bervera, Eds.), 418-420, Springer, 2007.

l  Song, X.D.*, Three-dimensional structure and differential rotation of the inner core, in Earth Core: Dynamics, Structure, Rotation (V.M. Dehant, K.C. Creager, S. Zatman, S. Karato, Eds.), Geodynamics Series, Vol. 31, American Geophysical Union, 2003.

l  Song, X.D.*, The Earth's core, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, (W. H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Eds.), Volume 1, Chapter 56, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002.

l  Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, The Earth's Core (in Chinese), New Frontiers of Sciences: Structure Evolution and Dynamics of the Earth (Eds: Y.X. Zhang, A. Yin), Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, 2002. 宋晓东和许晓霞,地核-20世纪的发现及展望,地球的结构、演化和动力学,主编:张有学和尹安,高等教育出版社,第四章,2002.

l  Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy of the Earth's inner core, Rev. of Geophysics, 35, 297-313, 1997.

l  Song, X.D., A review of Pn tomography of China, in Advances in Seismology and Physics of Earth's interior in China (Y.T. Chen and C.Y. Wang, Eds.), Seismology Press, Beijing, 321-345, 2004.


 

Full list of publications

1. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Velocity structure near the inner core boundary from waveform modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6573-6586, 1992.

2. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, E_ect of velocity structure in D” on PKP phases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 285-288, 1993.

3. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Anisotropy of the Earth's inner core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2591-2594, 1993.

4. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, A P-wave velocity model of the Earth's core, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9817-9830, 1995.

5. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Depth-dependence of inner core anisotropy, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9805-9816, 1995.

6. Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy in the central part of the inner core, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 16,689-16,097, 1996.

7. Song, X.D.*, and P.G. Richards Seismological evidence for differential rotation of the Earth's inner core, Nature, 382, 221-224, 1996.

8. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, PKP differential travel times: Implications for three-dimensional lower mantle structure, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1863-1866, 1997.

§ 9. Song, X.D.*, Anisotropy of the Earth's inner core, Rev. of Geophysics, 35, 297-313, 1997.

10. Richards, P.G., X.D. Song, A.Y. Li, Detecting Possible Rotation of Earth's Inner Core, Science, 282, 1227a, 1998.

11. Zhou, Y.Q. and X.D. Song, A review of the mantle dynamic system and its evolution (in Chinese), Earth Sci. Frontiers, 5, Suppl., 11-39, 1998.

§ 12. Song, X.D.*, The Earth's inner core and the dynamics of the Earth's deep interior (in Chinese), Earth Sci. Frontiers, 5, Suppl., 1-10, 1998.

13. Song, X.D.*, and D.V. Helmberger, Seismological evidence for an inner core transition zone, Science, 282, 924-927, 1998.

14. Zhang, G.M, L.R. Zhu, X.D. Song*, Z.X. Li, M.L. Yang, N.Q. Su, and X.Z. Chen, Predictions of the 1997 strong earthquakes in Jiashi, Xinjiang, China, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 1171-1183, 1999

15. Song, X.D.*, and A.Y. Li+, Support for differential inner core superrotation from earthquakes in Alaska recorded at South Pole station, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 623-630, 2000.

16. Song, X.D.*, Joint inversion for inner core rotation, inner core anisotropy, and mantle heterogeneity, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7931-7943, 2000.

17. Song, X.D.*, Time dependence of PKP(BC)-PKP(DF) times: Could this be an artifact of systematic earthquake mislocations? Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 122, 221-228, 2000.

18. Song, X.D.*, Comment on “The existence of an inner core super-rotation questioned by teleseismic doublets” by Georges Poupinet, Annie Souriau, and Olivier Coutant, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 124, 269-273, 2001.

§ 19. Song, X.D.*, The Earth's core, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, (W. H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Eds.), Volume 1, Chapter 56, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002.

20. Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, Inner core transition zone and anomalous PKP(DF) waveforms from polar paths, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(4), 10.1029/2001GL013822, 2002.

§ 21. Song, X.D.*, and X.X. Xu, The Earth's Core (in Chinese), New Frontiers of Sciences: Structure Evolution and Dynamics of the Earth (Eds: Y.X. Zhang, A. Yin), Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, 2002. 宋晓东和许晓霞,地核-20世纪的发现及展望,地球的结构、演化和动力学,主编:张有学和尹安,高等教育出版社,第四章,2002.

22. Sun, X.L.+, and X.D. Song, PKP travel times at near antipodal distances: Implications for inner core anisotropy and lowermost mantle structure, Earth Plant. Sci. Lett., 199, 429-445, 2002.

§ 23. Song, X.D.*, Three-dimensional structure and differential rotation of the inner core, in Earth Core: Dynamics, Structure, Rotation (V.M. Dehant, K.C. Creager, S. Zatman, S. Karato, Eds.), Geodynamics Series, Vol. 31, American Geophysical Union, 2003.

24. Xu, X.X.+, and X.D. Song, Evidence for inner core super-rotation from time-dependent differential PKP travel times observed at Beijing Seismic Network, Geophys. J. Int., 152, 509-514, 2003.

25. Huang, J.L., X.D. Song, S.Y. Wang, Fine structure of Pn velocity beneath Sichuan-Yunnan region, Sci. China, Ser. D., 46 Suppl., 201-209, 2003.

26. Liang, C.T.+, X.D. Song, and J.L. Huang, Tomographic inversion of Pn travel-times in China, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11304, doi:10.1029/2003JB0027 89, 2004.

27. Song, X.D.*, S.T. Li, Y.C. Li, S.H. Zheng, and X.N. Xie, Structure of lithospheric mantle and its implications for major basins in China (in Chinese), Earth Sci.-J. China Univ. Geosci., 29(5), 531-5 38, 2004.

28. Song, X.D., A review of Pn tomography of China, in Advances in Seismology and Physics of Earth's interior in China (Y.T. Chen and C.Y. Wang, Eds.), Seismology Press, Beijing, 321-345, 2004.

29. Zhang, J. (^), X.D. Song (^*), Y.C. Li, P.G. Richards, X.L. Sun, F. Waldhauser, Inner core differential motion confirmed by earthquake doublet waveform doublets, Science, 309, 1357-1360, doi:10.1126/science.1113193, 2005. (^ equal contribution)

30. Sun, X.L.+, G. Poupinet (^), and X.D. Song (^), Examination of systematic mislocation of South Sandwich Islands Earthquakes using station pairs: Implications for inner core rotation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B11305, doi:10.1029/2005JB004175, 2006. (^ alphabetic order)

31. Liang, C.T.+, and X.D. Song, A low velocity belt beneath northern and eastern Tibetan Plateau from Pn tomography, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22306, doi:10.1029/2006GL027926, 2006.

§ 32. Song, X.D.*, Inner core anisotropy, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (D. Gubbins and E. Herroro-Bervera, Eds.), 418-420, Springer, 2007.

33. Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, and X.D. Song, Fine structure in lowermost mantle beneath Central Pacific from PKP waves recorded at China Sesmic Network, Chinese J. Geophys., 50(1), 183-191, 2007.

34. Sun, X.L.+, X.D. Song, S.H. Zheng, and D.V. Helmberger, Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (1), 26-30, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609143103, 2007.

35. Sun, D.Y., D.V. Helmberger, X.D. Song, S.P. Grand, Predicting a global perovskite and postperovskite phase boundary, in Post-Perovskite: The Last Mantle Phase Transition (K. Hirose, J. Brodholt, T. Lay, D. Yuen, Eds.), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., Vol. 174, American Geophysical Union, 2007.

36. Song, X.D.*, G. Poupinet, Inner core rotation from event-pair analysis, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.06.034, 2007.

37. Sun, X.L.+, and X.D. Song, Tomographic inversion for three-dimensional anisotropy of Earth's inner core, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter., 167, 53-70, doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2008.02.011, 2008.

38. Sun, X.L.+, and X.D. Song, The inner inner core of the Earth: Texturing of iron crystals from three-dimensional seismic anisotropy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 56-65, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.049, 2008. 

39. Dai, W.+, and X.D. Song*, Detection of motion and heterogeneity in Earth's liquid outer core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16311, doi:10.1029/2008GL034895, 2008.

40. Song, X.D.*, and W. Dai, Topography of Earth's inner core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets, Geophys. J. Int., 175, 386-399, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03909.x, 2008.

41. Zheng, S.H., X.L. Sun, X.D. Song*, Y.J. Yang, M.H. Ritzwoller, Surface wave tomography of China from ambient seismic noise correlation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q05020, doi:10.1029/2008GC001981, 2008.

42. Xu, Z.J.+, and X.D. Song, Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation, Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, 106, 14207-14212, 2009.

43. Xu, Z.J.+, and X.D. Song, Joint inversion for crustal and Pn velocities and Moho depth for eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, Tectonophysics, 491, 185-193, 2010.

44. Lindner, D.+, X.D. Song*, and P. Ma, New insights into the inner-core rotation and its variability, J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JB006294, 2010.

45. Sun, X.L.+, X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, Y.J. Yang, and M.H. Ritzwoller, Three dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath China from ambient noise surface wave tomography, Earthq. Sci., 23, 449-463, Doi: 10.1007/s11589-010-0744-4, 2010.

46. Song, X.D.*, Preface to the special issue on ambient noise seismology, Earthq. Sci., 23, 395-396, Doi: 10.1007/s11589-010-0744-4, 2010.

47. Li, H.Y., S.T. Li, X.D. Song, M. Gong, X. Li, J. Jia,  Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath northwestern China from seismic ambient noise tomography, Geophys. J. Int. 188, 131-143 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05205.x, 2012.

48. Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song*, M.J. Xu, et al., Crust and upper mantle structure of the North China Craton and the NE Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic implications, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 369-370, 129-137, 2013.

49. Xu, Z.J.+, X.D. Song*, L.P. Zhu, Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion using Neighborhood Algorithm: An application to Hi-Climb linear array in Tibetan Plateau, Tectonophys., 584, 209-220, 2013.

50. Huang, H.H.+, Z.J. Xu, Y.M. Wu, X.D. Song*, B.S. Huang, N.L. Minh, First Local Seismic Tomography for Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam: Stepwise Inversion Employing Crustal P and Pn Waves, Tectonophys, 584, 230-239, 2013.

51. Xu, Z.J.+, X.D. Song*, S.H. Zheng, Shear velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in China from surface wave tomography using ambient noise and earthquake data, Earthq. Sci., 26(5):267-281, doi:10.1007/s11589-013-0010-7, 2013.

52. Wang, T.+, J. Revenaugh, and X.D. Song*, Two-dimensional/three-dimensial waveform modeling of subdcuting slab and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia, J. Geophys., Res., Solid Earth, 119, 4766–4786, doi:10.1002/2014JB011058, 2014.

53. Sun, X.+, X. Bao, M. Xu,D.W. Eaton, X.D. Song, L. Wang, Z. Ding, N. Mi, D. Yu, and H. Li (2014), Crustal structure beneath SE Tibet from joint analysis of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1479–1484, doi:10.1002/2014GL059269, 2014.

54. A Perttu, D Christensen, G Abers, X Song, Insights into mantle structure and flow beneath Alaska based on a decade of observations of shear wave splitting, J. Geophys. Res., 119 (11), 8366-8377, 2014.

§ 55. Song, X.D.* Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, H. Gupta (Ed.), 118-121, 2014.

56. HH Huang+, YM Wu, X Song, CH Chang, SJ Lee, TM Chang, HH Hsieh, Joint Vp and Vs tomography of Taiwan: Implications for subduction-collision orogeny, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 392, 177-191, 2014.

57. HH Huang+, YM Wu, X Song, CH Chang, H Kuo‐Chen, SJ Lee, Investigating the lithospheric velocity structures beneath the Taiwan region by nonlinear joint inversion of local and teleseismic P wave data: Slab continuity and deflection, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (18), 6350-6357, 2014.

58. 宋晓东* 李江涛, 鲍学伟, 李思田, 王良书, 任建业, 中国西部大型盆地的深部结构及对盆地形成和演化的意义,地学前缘, 221),127-137 2015. Song, X., Li, J., Bao, X., Li, S.c Wang, L., Ren, J. Deep structure of major basins in Western China and implications for basin formation and evolution (in Chinese). Earth Science Frontiers 22 (1), 127-137, 2015.

59. Wang, T.+, X.D. Song*, Xia H. Han, Equatorial anisotropy of Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelation of earthquake coda, Nature Geosci., 8 (3), 224-227, doi:10.1038/ngeo2354, 2015.

60. Bao, X.W.+ X Sun, M Xu, DW Eaton, X Song, L Wang, Z Ding, N Mi, H Li, D Yu, Z Huang, P Wang. Two crustal low-velocity channels beneath SE Tibet revealed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver functions, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 415, 16-24, 2015.

61. Bao, X.W.+, X.D. Song*, J.T. Li, High-resolution lithospheric structure beneath Mainland China from ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 417, 132-141, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.02.024, 2015.

62. Xin, D., Song, X.*, Wang, T. Localized temporal variation of Earth’s inner-core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets. Earthquake Science 28 (3), 175-185, 2015.

63. Du, X., Song, X., Zhang, M., Lu, Y., Chen, P., Liu, Z., Yang, S. Shale gas potential of the Lower Permian Gufeng Formation in the western area of the Lower Yangtze Platform, China. Marine and Petroleum Geology 67, 526-543, 2015.

64. 王涛、宋晓东*、夏晗, 地球内内核的近赤道面各向异性, 世界地震译丛, 2015年第5-6doi:10.16738/j.cnki.issn.1003-3238.2015Z1002, 2015.

65. Xia, H.H., X.D. Song*, and T. Wang, Extraction of triplicated PKP phases from noise correlations, Geophys. J. Int. 205, 499–508 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw015, 2016.

66. 宋晓东*, 地球内核内的核, 中国科学院2016科学发展报告(2015年中国科研代表性成果)

67. Li, X.+, X. Song*, and J. Li (2017), Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JB013787, 2017.

68. Wang, T.*, X. Song* Support for equatorial anisotropy of Earth’s inner-inner core from seismic interferometry at low latitudes. Phys. Earth Planet. In. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2017.03.004

69. Ye, Z.++, Li, J.T.+, Gao, R.++, Song, X.D., Li, Q., Li, Y., … Li, W. (2017). Crustal and uppermost mantle structure across the Tibet-Qinling transition zone in NE Tibet: Implications for material extrusion beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 10,316–10,323. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL075141.

70. Wang Q.+, X.D. Song*, J. Y. Ren (2017), Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia, Earth Planet. Phys., 1, 13-25, doi: 10.26464/epp2017003.

71. Li, J.T.+, Song, X.D.*, Zhu, L., & Deng, Y. (2017). Joint Inversion of Surface Wave Dispersions and Receiver Functions with P Velocity Constraints: Application to Southeastern Tibet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122(9), 7291-7310.

72. Deng, Y.F.++*, Li, J.T.*, Song, X.D.*, Zhu, L.P. Joint inversion for lithospheric structures: Implications for the growth and deformation in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077486, 2018.

73. Li, H.++, Song, X.D., Lü, Q., Yang, X., Deng, Y., Ouyang, L., et al. (2018). Seismic imaging of lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China and their tectonic implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JB014992.

74. Li, J.T.+, X.D. Song*, Tearing of Indian mantle lithosphere from high-resolution seismic images: Implications for lithosphere deformation in southern Tibet. Proc. Natl. Aca. Sci. USA, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717258115, 2018.

75. Li, M.+, Song, X., Li, J. & Bao, X., 2018. Lithospheric structures of the Main Basins in Mainland China and its tectonic implications, Earth Science (in Chinese), 43, 10, p. 3362-3372, doi:10.3799/dqkx.2018.286.

76. Zheng, C.++, Ding, Z. & Song, X., 2018. Joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and receiver functions for crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the north-south seismic zone, Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese), 61, 4, p.122-1224, doi:10.6038/cjg2018L0443.

77. C Hwang, WB Shen, CK Shum, X Song, Introduction to the special issue on Tibet: Contemporary geodetic geophysical observations and interpretations, TERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES 30, 1-5, 2019.

78. Y Deng++, J Li+, X Song, H Li, T Xu, The lithosphericscale deformation in NE Tibet from joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 30 (1), 127-137, 2019.

79. Li, J.+, Song, X.*, Wang, P., & Zhu, L. (2019). A generalized H‐κ method with harmonic corrections on Ps and its crustal multiples in receiver functions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB016356.

80. L Chen++, X Song, TV Gerya, T Xu, Y Chen, Crustal melting beneath orogenic plateaus: Insights from 3D Thermomechanical modeling, Tectonophysics 761, 1-15, 2019.

81. Y Deng++, J Li, T Peng, Q Ma, X Song, X Sun, Y Shen, W Fan, Lithospheric structure in the Cathaysia block (South China) and its implication for the Late Mesozoic magmatism, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 291, 24-34, 2019.

82. ZG Yang+, XD Song*, Ambient noise Love wave tomography of China, Earth and Planetary Physics 3 (3), 218-231, 2019.

83. WS Wang+, XD Song*, Analyses of anomalous amplitudes of antipodal PKIIKP waves, Earth and Planetary Physics 3 (3), 212-217, 2019.

84. Du X‐B++, Chen P, Lu Y, Song X. Dual‐ system tract pattern: Significance for foreland basin reservoir prediction (Jurassic, Central Junggar Basin, West China). Geological Journal. 2019;1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3557.

85. Du X‐B++, Lu Y‐C, Chen P, Li X‐Q, Song X‐D. The Lower Yangtze area: A next shale gas block for China? Preliminary potential assessment from some geology and organic geochemistry information. Geological Journal. 2019;1–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3585.

86. Zhang, G.+, X. Li, C. Zheng, X.D. Song*, Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath the central-eastern Tibetan Plateau from P-wave tomography(青藏高原中东部地壳和上地幔P波层析成像) Acta Seismologica Sinica, 2019 41(4), 411-424. https://doi.org/10.11939/jass.20190003.

87. 杨志高, 陈运泰, 张雪梅, 宋晓东,青藏高原东缘及东北缘 S 波速度结构和径向各向异性,地球物理学报, 2019.

88. Li, J.+*, R.L. Weaver, J.Y. Yoritomo, X.D. Song* (2020), Application of temporal reweighting to ambient noise cross-correlation for improved seismic Green’s function, Geophys. J. Int.  221, 265–272 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa001.

89. Zhou, L.Q.++, X.D. Song*, R.L. Weaver, 2020. Retrieval of Amplitude and Attenuation from Ambient Seismic Noise: Synthetic Data and Practical Considerations, Geophys. J. Int., 222, 544–559. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggaa194.

90. Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, Yang, Y., & Song, X. (2020). Temporal changes of the inner core from globally distributed repeating earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125, e2019JB018652. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018652.

91. Yang, Y.+ and X.D. Song*, 2020. Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 541, 116267 doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116267.

92. Xia, H.H.+, X.D. Song*, R.L. Weaver, J.T. Li, 2020. Amplitude and decay of long-period coda of great earthquakes, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter., 306, 106538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2020.106538.

93. Jia, K., S. Zhou, J. Zhuang, C. Jiang, Y. Guo, Z. Gao, S. Gao, Y. Ogata, and X. Song (2020). Nonstationary Background Seismicity Rate and Evolution of Stress Changes in the Changning Salt Mining and Shale-Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Region, Sichuan Basin, China, Seismol. Res. Lett. XX, 1–12, doi: 10.1785/0220200092.

94. Bao, X., Song, X.*, Eaton, D. W., Xu, Y., & Chen, H. (2020). Episodic lithospheric deformation in eastern Tibet inferred from seismic anisotropy. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085721. https://doi.org/ 10.1029/2019GL085721.

95. Zhou, L.++, Song, X.*, Yang, X., & Zhao, C. (2020). Rayleigh Wave Attenuation Tomography in the Crust of the Chinese Mainland. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 21(8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GC008971.

96. Yang, Y.+, & Song, X.* (2020). Reply to Yao et al.'s comment on “Origin of temporal changes of inner-core seismic waves”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 116639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116639

97. Yang, Y., X. Song*, and A. T. Ringler (2021). An Evaluation of the Timing Accuracy of Global and Regional Seismic Stations and Networks, Seismol. Res. Lett. XX, 1–12, doi: 10.1785/0220210232.

98. Li, J., Song, X.*, Yang, Y., Li, M., Li, J., & Li, Y. (2021) Strong seasonal variations of seismic velocity in eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin from ambient noise interferometry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, e2021JB022600. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022600

99. Jiang, X., Song, X.*, Xia, H. H., & Weaver, R. L. (2021). On the generation and decay of the long-period coda energy of large earthquakes. Earthquake Science, 34(2), 103-113. doi: 10.29382/eqs-2021-0012

100. Li, J. T.*, & Song, X. D.* (2021). Crustal structure beneath the Hi-CLIMB seismic array in the central-western Tibetan Plateau from the improved H-κ-c method. Earthq Sci, 34(3), 199-210. doi: 10.29382/eqs-2021-0002

101. Yang Y, Song X*. (2021) Repeating earthquakes and temporal changes of the Earth's inner core. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 52(1):1-10. doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2020-010

102. Song, X. (2021). Differential Rotation of the Earth’s Inner Core. In: Gupta, H.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58631-7_43

103. Jiang, X.+, Song X.* (2022) A Method to Determine Moment Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes Based on the Long‐Period Coda, Geophysical Research Letters 49 (12), e2022GL097801. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL097801

104. Yue, H., Shen, Z., Zhao, Z., Wang, T., Cao, B., Li, Z., Bao, X., Zhao, L., Song, X., et al. (2022) Rupture process of the 2021 M7. 4 Maduo earthquake and implication for deformation mode of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane in Tibetan Plateau, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119 (23), e2116445119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116445119

105. Zhang, X.+, Song, X.*, Li, J. (2022). A comparative study of seismic tomography models of the Chinese continental lithosphere. Earthq Sci 35(3): 161–185, doi: 10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.005

106. Wang, F.+, Song, X.*, Li, J. (2022) Deep Learning‐Based H‐κ Method (HkNet) for Estimating Crustal Thickness and Vp/Vs Ratio From Receiver Functions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 127 (6), e2022JB023944. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB023944

107. Li, M.+, Song, X.*, Li, J., Bao, X. (2022) Crust and upper mantle structure of East Asia from ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography, Earthq Sci, 35 (2), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eqs.2022.05.004

108. Cui, Q.++, Zhou, Y., Li, J., Song, X., Gao, Y., Cui, R. (2022) Crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ) images beneath the central Tien Shan revealed by the H-κ-c method. Tectonophysics, 822, 229157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2021.229157

109. Yang, Y., & Song, X.D.* (2022). Inner core rotation captured by earthquake doublets and twin stations. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL098393. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098393


Jobs

Job opportunities


Students and young researchers with strong interests and motivations are encouraged to contact me at xdsong@pku.edu.cn for study and research (Ph.D., postdoc, or other) opportunities.



Seismology/Geophysics Postdoc Fellowships at Peking University


We invite motivated outstanding candidates to apply for the Boya Postdoctoral Fellowships at the School of Earth and Space Sciences at Peking University (PKU) or national postdoc fellowships. Applicants with an interest in seismology or interdisciplinary interests are particularly encouraged to apply.

The fellowship is for a period of 2 years, with a base salary of 200K RMB/year (exchange rates 7-8 RMB/Euro and 6-7 RMB/US$), a housing subsidy of 60K RMB/year, and benefits that include medical and social insurance (in amount of around 91K RMB/year).

 Additional compensations will be considered that are commensurate with experience. Accompanying children may enter the kindergarten, primary/secondary school of PKU.

Applicants below the age of 35 with PhDs within the last 3 years are eligible to apply. Applicants from well-known universities/programs are particularly encouraged to apply.

While the fellowship is a personal fellowship to the candidate and therefore allows one to follow own research interests, we are particularly interested in the following areas.

n  High-resolution imaging of earth structure and regional tectonics (esp. on east Asia)

n  Deep earth structure and dynamics

n  Fault zone fine structure and earthquake source processes and physics

n  Applications of new techniques, e.g., machine learning, DAS, array processing, joint inversions..

Successful applicants are to work primarily with Prof. Xiaodong Song and are encouraged to collaborate with other PKU faculty members (e.g., Profs. Han Yue and Li Zhao) and with the SinoProbe Lab of the Ministry of Natural Resources (Prof. Shuwen Dong).

The positions remain open until filled (for Fall or Spring). The next deadline for the Fall is mid-October, 2022. Candidates are encouraged to contact us early. Please contact Ms. Diana Wu at lywu@pku.edu.cn for general information and to submit preliminary application materials including a CV and a short statement of research interests. For discussion of research projects, contact Prof. Xiaodong Song (xdsong@pku.edu.cn).